Pediatric Neurology News Archive

Newborns With Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome May Benefit From Rooming-In vs NICU Care

Newborns With Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome May Benefit From Rooming-In vs NICU Care

Rooming-in with the mother or family members may help reduce pharmacotherapy and increase breastfeeding in newborns with NAS.

Prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in the US

Prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in the US

Fetal alcohol syndrome prevalence ranges from 1.1% to 5.0% among first graders in 4 US communities.

Ketamine, Propofol Help Reduce Recovery Time in Children Undergoing Sedated MRI

Ketamine, Propofol Help Reduce Recovery Time in Children Undergoing Sedated MRI

For children undergoing MRI with deep sedation, a shorter recovery time is associated with use of ketamine at induction followed by propofol infusion.

FDA Expands Pediatric Age Range for Contrast Agent

FDA Expands Pediatric Age Range for Contrast Agent

The FDA has approved an expanded age range for MultiHance contrast agent.

Nutrients Key to Neurodevelopment in Child's First 3 years

Nutrients Key to Neurodevelopment in Child's First 3 years

Providing adequate nurtrients during a child's first 3 years is important for optimal neurodevelopment.

Neurodevelopment in Preemies Not Affected by Glucocorticoid Therapy

Neurodevelopment in Preemies Not Affected by Glucocorticoid Therapy

There is no increased rate of neurodevelopmental disability in preterm infants using inhaled glucocorticoids.

Language Delay May Be Linked to Prenatal Acetaminophen Use

Language Delay May Be Linked to Prenatal Acetaminophen Use

A language delay among girls is linked to acetaminophen use during pregnancy.

Fetal MRI Analysis, Machine Learning Identifies Candidates for CSF Diversion

Fetal MRI Analysis, Machine Learning Identifies Candidates for CSF Diversion

Multiple imaging characteristics from fetal MRI analysis helped to yield a model with the ability to classify postnatal CSF diversion status with a high level of accuracy.

Folate Supplementation May Help Reduce Autistic Traits in Children Exposed to AEDs In Utero

Folate Supplementation May Help Reduce Autistic Traits in Children Exposed to AEDs In Utero

Children who are exposed to AEDs in utero may have a reduced risk of autistic traits.

Paternal Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Use Linked to ADHD in Offspring

Paternal Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Use Linked to ADHD in Offspring

Paternal use of SSRIs before conception is linked to an increased risk of ADHD in offspring.

Clinical Factors Associated With Pediatric Brain Neoplasms

Clinical Factors Associated With Pediatric Brain Neoplasms

A study pinpointed clinical factors associated with pediatric brain neoplasms to assist clinicians in making neuroimaging decisions.

Therapeutic Hypothermia May Reduce Disability in Newborns With Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy

Therapeutic Hypothermia May Reduce Disability in Newborns With Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy

A randomized clinical trial examined whether term infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy benefited from therapeutic cooling.

Atypical Antipsychotic Use in Children Reduced With Peer Review Prior Authorization Process

Atypical Antipsychotic Use in Children Reduced With Peer Review Prior Authorization Process

Medicaid claims from 4 geographically diverse states were examined.

Prenatal Use of ADHD Medication Linked to Neonatal Morbidity

Prenatal Use of ADHD Medication Linked to Neonatal Morbidity

There is an increased risk of neonatal morbidity associated with exposure to ADHD medication in utero.

Neurostimulation Provides Abdominal Pain Relief in Children

Neurostimulation Provides Abdominal Pain Relief in Children

Neurostimulation through percutaneous electrical nerve field stimulation was shown to durably reduce pain in children.

White Matter Volume in Infants May be Affected by General Anesthesia

White Matter Volume in Infants May be Affected by General Anesthesia

Infants under 1 year old who received general anesthesia may have less white matter in their brains.

Assessing the Global Prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

Assessing the Global Prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

The global prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder is about 7.7 per 1000.

Despite Improved Survival, Developmental Delay Still Common in Preemies

Despite Improved Survival, Developmental Delay Still Common in Preemies

Survival without neuromotor disabilities in preterm infants has increased.

Neonatal Hypoglycemia Not Linked With Neurosensory Impairment

Neonatal Hypoglycemia Not Linked With Neurosensory Impairment

The researchers observed no increased risk of neurosensory impairment among those exposed to neonatal hypoglycemia.

Exposure to Flame Retardants May Have Adverse Effect on Pediatric IQ

Exposure to Flame Retardants May Have Adverse Effect on Pediatric IQ

Reduced intelligence may be linked with developmental exposures to polybrominated diphenyl ethers.

Maternal Psychotropic, Opioid Use Boosts Risk of Neonatal Drug Withdrawal

Maternal Psychotropic, Opioid Use Boosts Risk of Neonatal Drug Withdrawal

There is an increased risk of neonatal drug withdrawal if psychotropic medications and opioids are used during pregnancy.

Animal Model Shows Reversal of Fetal Alchohol Syndrome Effects

Animal Model Shows Reversal of Fetal Alchohol Syndrome Effects

Animal research may have helped to find a treatment for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder in children.

No Elevated Risk of Intellectual Disability in Children Exposed to Antidepressants in Utero

No Elevated Risk of Intellectual Disability in Children Exposed to Antidepressants in Utero

The risk of intellectual disability among children whose mothers took antidepressants during pregnancy was not statistically significant.

Longer Cooling Doesn't Improve Outcomes in Neonatal Hypoxic Encephalopathy

Longer Cooling Doesn't Improve Outcomes in Neonatal Hypoxic Encephalopathy

Longer durations and greater depth of cooling did not reduce later mortality and disability.

FDA Clears Neonatal MRI System

FDA Clears Neonatal MRI System

Transporting neonates from the intensive care unit to MRI suites can pose challenges to care and patient safety.

Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Linked to Growing Economic Burden

Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Linked to Growing Economic Burden

With the numbers of cases of NAS rising in recent years, so is the cost associated with caring for the children.

1 in 20 Pregnant Women With Zika Infection Have Children With Birth Defects

1 in 20 Pregnant Women With Zika Infection Have Children With Birth Defects

Zika-related birth defects might occur following Zika infection during any trimester of pregnancy.

Pregabalin Use in Pregnancy: What's the Risk?

Pregabalin Use in Pregnancy: What's the Risk?

Previous research has suggested a link between early use of pregabalin in pregnancy and congenital malformations.

Buprenorphine Superior to Morphine in Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

Buprenorphine Superior to Morphine in Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

Sublingual buprenorphine was associated with shorter duration of treatment and shorter length of hospital stay.

Neurodevelopment Not Adversely Affected by Hydrocortisone Tx in Preemies

Neurodevelopment Not Adversely Affected by Hydrocortisone Tx in Preemies

No statistically significant differences between the groups in the distribution of patients without neurodevelopmental impairment were observed.

Iodide Supplementation May Not Benefit Preemies

Iodide Supplementation May Not Benefit Preemies

There was no significant difference in neurodevelopmental status at 2 years for infants with iodide vs placebo.

Exploring Links Between Zika, GBS, Microcephaly in Brazil

Exploring Links Between Zika, GBS, Microcephaly in Brazil

There was an apparent resurgence of Zika virus and GBS early in 2016, but no subsequent increase in microcephaly.

DHA Supplementation Has No Impact on IQ in Offspring

DHA Supplementation Has No Impact on IQ in Offspring

No between-group differences in measures of language, academic, or executive functioning were observed in those who took DHA during pregnancy and those who did not.

Movement Disorder After Foreign Body Ingestion

Movement Disorder After Foreign Body Ingestion

A 10-month-old girl admitted to PICU with sudden onset of movement disorder was found to have ingested a foreign body.

Risk of Zika Virus-Related Birth Defects in Pregnant Women

Risk of Zika Virus-Related Birth Defects in Pregnant Women

The CDC report only accounts for physical birth defects, as researchers note that the full scope of developmental defects has yet to be recorded.

Antiretroviral Therapy May Improve Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in HIV-Infected Infants

Antiretroviral Therapy May Improve Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in HIV-Infected Infants

Early detection and robust treatment are critical to limiting deficits in achieving developmental milestones in HIV-infected infants.

MRI Improves Diagnostic Accuracy of Fetal Brain Abnormalities

MRI Improves Diagnostic Accuracy of Fetal Brain Abnormalities

In addition to ultrasonography, MRI improved diagnostic accuracy and had an impact on prognoses in cases of fetal brain abnormalities.

MRI May Help Detect White Matter Injury in Neonates

MRI May Help Detect White Matter Injury in Neonates

The assessments revealed that damage in the frontal lobes mattered more than damage in other brain locations.

No Difference in Neurodevelopment in Children Conceived by Assisted Reproduction

No Difference in Neurodevelopment in Children Conceived by Assisted Reproduction

Researchers found no difference in neurodevelopment in children conceived by ART.

Parental Obesity Linked to Delays in Child Development

Parental Obesity Linked to Delays in Child Development

In both parents, a BMI ≥35 kg/m² suggested a likelihood that the child would fail the problem-solving domain.

Effects of Maternal Pre- and Postpartum Depression on Child's Brain Development

Effects of Maternal Pre- and Postpartum Depression on Child's Brain Development

A significant gender effect was observed in the cohort.

Blood Test May Identify Risk of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

Blood Test May Identify Risk of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

Moderate to high levels of drinking during early pregnancy were associated with significant alterations in circulating microRNAs in maternal blood.

No Neurodevelopmental Benefit for Donor Breast Milk vs Formula in Low-Weight Infants

No Neurodevelopmental Benefit for Donor Breast Milk vs Formula in Low-Weight Infants

Neurodevelopment improvement should not be considered a treatment goal of supplementing donor milk, the authors concluded.

Differences in Brain Structure in Pediatric PTSD

Differences in Brain Structure in Pediatric PTSD

The PTSD group had changes suggestive of decreased local and global network efficiency.

Updated AAP Guidelines on Safe Sleep for Prevention of SIDS

Updated AAP Guidelines on Safe Sleep for Prevention of SIDS

Children should sleep in the same room, but not in the same bed, as their parents, for at least the first 6 months after birth.

AAP: Visits to Pediatric ERs for Headache Rising

AAP: Visits to Pediatric ERs for Headache Rising

The study results suggest that headaches are a growing burden on patients and the health care system.

Antidepressant Bupropion Crosses Placental Barrier

Antidepressant Bupropion Crosses Placental Barrier

Effects of fetal exposure are yet to be determined.

Zika Infection in Late Pregnancy Can Still Affect Fetal Brain

Zika Infection in Late Pregnancy Can Still Affect Fetal Brain

In addition, a second study found that Zika infection can be spread through organ transplants.

Clinician, Parent Interaction in Neonatal Encephalopathy

Clinician, Parent Interaction in Neonatal Encephalopathy

Clear communication is key during this high-stress time.

Updated Guidelines for Sedation of Pediatric Patients

Updated Guidelines for Sedation of Pediatric Patients

Safe sedation of children requires a systematic approach.

Hyperglycemia, Infarct Size Impact Outcomes in Pediatric Stroke

Hyperglycemia, Infarct Size Impact Outcomes in Pediatric Stroke

Abnormal vital signs in these patients may be more common than previously thought.

Pregabalin Use During Pregnancy Tied to Birth Defects

Pregabalin Use During Pregnancy Tied to Birth Defects

The study was small, but suggests that clinicians and patients should exercise caution.

No Benefit for High-Dose rhEPO for Neuroprotection in Preemies

No Benefit for High-Dose rhEPO for Neuroprotection in Preemies

The regimen used in the study may be insufficient for neuroprotection.

Bevacizumab Associated With Neurodevelopmental Disabilities

Bevacizumab Associated With Neurodevelopmental Disabilities

Compared to laser treatment, infants given Avastin were more than 3 times as likely to have neurodevelopmental problems.

Working Memory Training Shows No Benefit for Academics in Children

Working Memory Training Shows No Benefit for Academics in Children

The costs of the intervention also posed a significant obstacle.

ACOG Updates Recommendations for Prenatal Genetic Screening

ACOG Updates Recommendations for Prenatal Genetic Screening

Updates were published for prenatal diagnostic testing for genetic disorders and screening for fetal aneuploidy.

Delirium Common After Pediatric Cardiac Surgery

Delirium Common After Pediatric Cardiac Surgery

Cardiac surgery is a known risk factor for delirium in adults, however its affect on pediatric patients is not known.

Sleep Disruption in Fetal Alchohol Syndrome Contributes to Cognitive Disorders

Sleep Disruption in Fetal Alchohol Syndrome Contributes to Cognitive Disorders

Slow-wave sleep fragmentation significantly correlated with neurobehavioral outcomes in a mouse model.

Vertigo, Balance Problems More Common in Girls

Vertigo, Balance Problems More Common in Girls

The large-scale national survey found differences in prevalence of vertigo and balance problems between girls and boys aged 3 to 17 years.

Pediatric Neurology Patients Use Alternative Medications for Sleep Disorders, Headache

Pediatric Neurology Patients Use Alternative Medications for Sleep Disorders, Headache

The most commonly reported neurologic disorders being treated with CAM were headache and epilepsy. Use of CAM was reported by 41.6% of respondents.

Midazolam Exposure May Impair Hippocampal Growth in Preemies

Midazolam Exposure May Impair Hippocampal Growth in Preemies

Higher exposure resulted in poorer cognitive outcomes at 18 months.

Zika Virus Poses a Threat to Pregnant Women, Unborn Children

Zika Virus Poses a Threat to Pregnant Women, Unborn Children

Pregnant women infected with virus may be at increased risk of having infants with microcephaly.

Prenatal Opioid Use Likely Behind Neonatal Abstinence Sx Increase

Prenatal Opioid Use Likely Behind Neonatal Abstinence Sx Increase

Women who are pregnant should not be prescribed opioids, and if so, should only take them for a short amount of time.

Oral Contraceptives in Early Pregnancy Not Tied to Birth Defects

Oral Contraceptives in Early Pregnancy Not Tied to Birth Defects

The use of oral contraceptives early on in pregnancy did not appear to influence the risk of birth defects.

Infertility Tx Not Associated with Developmental Delays in Children

Infertility Tx Not Associated with Developmental Delays in Children

The researchers plan to continue following the children through 8 years of age.

Family Hx Ups Odds of Psychotic Symptoms in Stimulant-Treated Kids

Family Hx Ups Odds of Psychotic Symptoms in Stimulant-Treated Kids

A family history of mental illness increases the risk of such disorders in children taking stimulants.

Disadvantaged Children at Greater Risk of Neurological Impairment

Disadvantaged Children at Greater Risk of Neurological Impairment

The most disadvantaged children were more likely to have neurological impairments.

Information, Communication Lacking for Neurotoxicity in Pediatric Anesthesia

Information, Communication Lacking for Neurotoxicity in Pediatric Anesthesia

Improvements are needed in clinical practice, training, and communication.

Antidepressant Use During Pregnancy Linked to Autism Risk

Antidepressant Use During Pregnancy Linked to Autism Risk

Use of SSRIs late in pregnancy may increase the risk of autism spectrum disorder in children.

Gene Mutations in Congenital Heart Disease Contribute to Neurodevelopmental Delays

Gene Mutations in Congenital Heart Disease Contribute to Neurodevelopmental Delays

A large number of de novo genetic mutations were found in children with congenital defects and neurodevelopmental abnormalities.

First-Time Mothers Need More Accurate Vaccine Information

First-Time Mothers Need More Accurate Vaccine Information

Those not planning on following recommendations got most of their information online or from family and friends.

ADHD Stimulants Linked to Sleep Problems in Children

ADHD Stimulants Linked to Sleep Problems in Children

Methylphenidate medications like Ritalin and amphetamines like Adderall cause sleep problems.

Obese Children's Brains React Differently to Food Smells

Obese Children's Brains React Differently to Food Smells

Food smells generate impulsive reaction in obese children.

Lead Exposure May Contribute to Insomnia, Daytime Sleepiness in Children

Lead Exposure May Contribute to Insomnia, Daytime Sleepiness in Children

Children with an elevated blood lead level were more likely to struggle with insomnia and daytime sleepiness.

Premature Infants Have Weakened Brain Network Connectivity

Premature Infants Have Weakened Brain Network Connectivity

The functional and structural differences observed in preemies contributes to increased risk of developing behavioral and emotional disorders.

Preexisting Conditions Can Complicate Concussion Diagnosis

Preexisting Conditions Can Complicate Concussion Diagnosis

Girls with a history of a psychiatric condition, substance abuse, or ADHD were more likely to report concussion-like symptoms.

Pediatric Cancer Survivors At High Risk for Second Stroke

Pediatric Cancer Survivors At High Risk for Second Stroke

The risk of suffering a second stroke is double the rate seen in noncancer stroke survivors.

MRI, Ultrasound Preferred Over CT Scan in Pediatric Patients

MRI, Ultrasound Preferred Over CT Scan in Pediatric Patients

Seizures were one of the most common reasons pediatric patients received CT scans.

Pediatric Mental Health Driving Up Emergency Department Visits

Pediatric Mental Health Driving Up Emergency Department Visits

More resources may need to allocated to acute care for pediatric mental health.

Altered Brain Structure Linked to Early Life Adversity, Depression

Altered Brain Structure Linked to Early Life Adversity, Depression

Early life adversity and internalizing symptoms may alter brain structure.

Calcium Channel Blockers in Pregnancy Don't Up Neonatal Seizure Risk

Calcium Channel Blockers in Pregnancy Don't Up Neonatal Seizure Risk

Contrary to prior research, a new study reports no increased risk of seizures in neonates born to mothers exposed to CCBs in late pregnancy.

Prediction Tool May Help Identify Abusive Head Trauma

Prediction Tool May Help Identify Abusive Head Trauma

The tool predicted the likelihood of AHT based on six identifying factors.

Poverty Affects Brain Development, Academic Performance in Children

Poverty Affects Brain Development, Academic Performance in Children

Those from the poorest households had the greatest deficits.

Prenatal Marijuana Use May Affect Fetal Brain Development

Prenatal Marijuana Use May Affect Fetal Brain Development

The guidance issued by ACOG notes that evidence shows marijuana use can affect fetal brain development.

Adolescents' Working Memory Tied to Risky Sexual Behavior

Adolescents' Working Memory Tied to Risky Sexual Behavior

Weaker working memory is linked to increased likelihood of risky sexual behavior in adolescents.

Genernal Anesthesia May Affect Brain Development, Intelligence

Genernal Anesthesia May Affect Brain Development, Intelligence

General anesthesia prior to age 4 may affect brain development.

High Altitude Increases Risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

High Altitude Increases Risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

Those who lived above 8,000 feet were at higher risk of SIDS than those who lived below 6,000 feet.

Fetal Alcohol Exposure Influences Brain Structure, Gene Function

Fetal Alcohol Exposure Influences Brain Structure, Gene Function

The study focused on a gestational period when women don't often realize that they are pregnant.

Premature Infants Have Reduced Brain Connectivity in Thalamus, Cortex

Premature Infants Have Reduced Brain Connectivity in Thalamus, Cortex

Reduced brain connectivity puts preterm infants at a greater risk of developing neurodevelopmental disorders.

New WHO Folate Guidelines for Neural Tube Defect Prevention

New WHO Folate Guidelines for Neural Tube Defect Prevention

For greatest reduction in neural tube defects, RBC folate concentrations should be >400 ng/mL.

Opioids During Pregnancy Affect Birth Weight, Respiratory Health

Opioids During Pregnancy Affect Birth Weight, Respiratory Health

Babies exposed to opioid pain relievers during pregnancy were more likely to be preterm, have complicated births, low birth weight, and respiratory distress.

Brain and Spine Findings Require More Pediatrician Awareness

Brain and Spine Findings Require More Pediatrician Awareness

Great awareness among pediatricians will allow them to better counsel concerned parents and make referrals to subspecialists.

Family Income May Influence Brain Development

Family Income May Influence Brain Development

Researchers found a nonlinear association between family income and children's brain surface area.

Macrolides During Pregnancy May Raise Cerebral Palsy, Epilepsy Risk

Macrolides During Pregnancy May Raise Cerebral Palsy, Epilepsy Risk

Compared with penicillin, macrolides taken during pregnancy increase the child's risk of developing cerebral palsy or epilepsy.

Prenatal Exposure to Pollution Alters Fetal White Matter

Prenatal Exposure to Pollution Alters Fetal White Matter

A small cohort from a larger study indicated prenatal exposure to pollution affected fetal white matter, which could result in ADHD, other developmental problems.

Effects of Breastfeeding on Intelligence Last Through Adult Life

Effects of Breastfeeding on Intelligence Last Through Adult Life

Breastfeeding for prolonged periods is associated with increased intelligence, longer schooling, and higher earnings.

Gene Variant May Increase Neuropathy Risk in Pediatric Leukemia Drug

Gene Variant May Increase Neuropathy Risk in Pediatric Leukemia Drug

Patients with ALL who have a variant of gene CEP72 may experience more frequent and severe neuropathy while on vincristine.

Low Levels of Vitamin D in Childhood Raises Risk of Cardiovascular Disease

Low Levels of Vitamin D in Childhood Raises Risk of Cardiovascular Disease

Chances of atherosclerosis were greater in those that had the lowest levels of vitamin D in childhood.

Childhood Neglect Alters White Matter in Brain

Childhood Neglect Alters White Matter in Brain

The changes in white matter were less apparent in children who were placed in high-quality care.

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