Stroke News Archive

General Anesthesia a Viable Sedation Strategy for Thrombectomy in Stroke: Clinician Takeaway

General Anesthesia a Viable Sedation Strategy for Thrombectomy in Stroke: Clinician Takeaway

Although several studies have established the use of endovascular therapy with stent retrievers for selected acute stroke as standard of care, best practices surrounding the best sedation strategy remain unclear.

Just 1 Cigarette Per Day Increases Stroke, Heart Disease Risk

Just 1 Cigarette Per Day Increases Stroke, Heart Disease Risk

There is a significant increased risk of coronary heart disease and stroke linked with smoking just 1 cigarette per day.

Many Stroke Patients Not Receiving Timely Rehabilitation

Many Stroke Patients Not Receiving Timely Rehabilitation

Many stroke patients referred to rehabilitation services, do not actually receive these services.

Stroke Incidence Linked to Number of Renal Cysts

Stroke Incidence Linked to Number of Renal Cysts

Although renal cysts are generally thought of as benign findings, this study points to a possible higher stroke risk in patients with multiple cysts.

Percutaneous patent foramen ovale closure is superior to medical treatment alone in preventing recurrent stroke

Patent foramen ovale closure was superior to medical treatment alone in preventing transient ischemic attack and recurrent stroke.

Thrombectomy between 6 and 24 hours after acute stroke reduces disability: The DAWN trial

Thrombectomy performed between 6 and 24 hours after onset of acute stroke in patients with a mismatch between stroke symptoms and infarct volume results in better disability outcomes compared to standard care alone.

Early Initiation of SSRIs After Stroke May Reduce Neurologic Dysfunction

Early Initiation of SSRIs After Stroke May Reduce Neurologic Dysfunction

The findings suggest that future studies should explore the specific time window in which SSRIs are beneficial.

Updated Ischemic Stroke Guidelines: Expert Takeaways

Updated Ischemic Stroke Guidelines: Expert Takeaways

Under the new ischemic stroke guidelines, the treatment window for thrombectomy has been expanded to up to 24 hours after symptom onset.

Reduced Stroke Risk With Blood Pressure, Cholesterol-Lowering Drugs

Reduced Stroke Risk With Blood Pressure, Cholesterol-Lowering Drugs

Fixed-dose candesartan plus hydrochlorothiazide and rosuvstatin reduced first stroke in patients at intermediate risk for cardiovascular disease.

Recurrent Ischemic Stroke Risk Associated With Sleep Apnea

Recurrent Ischemic Stroke Risk Associated With Sleep Apnea

In this population-based study, researchers found that Mexican Americans had a greater risk for recurrent stroke and death than non-Hispanic whites.

Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Incidence Up in Pregnant Women

Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Incidence Up in Pregnant Women

Researchers have observed an upward trend in the incidence of pregnancy-related spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Stroke Treatment Times May Be Reduced With Pharmacist Involvement

Stroke Treatment Times May Be Reduced With Pharmacist Involvement

A significantly shorter door-to-needle time is associated with the presence of a pharmacist at bedside during acute ischemic stroke.

Intracranial Atherosclerotic Disease May Coexist With Stroke Risk Factors

Intracranial Atherosclerotic Disease May Coexist With Stroke Risk Factors

Screening for coexisting diseases may help identify high-risk patients with intracranial atherosclerotic disease.

Stroke Risk in AFib Better Predicted With Delta CHA2DS2-VASc Score

Stroke Risk in AFib Better Predicted With Delta CHA2DS2-VASc Score

CHA2DS2-VASc score assessment is more predictive of ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation than the baseline score.

Recurrent Stroke Risk Reduced With Patent Foramen Ovale Closure

Recurrent Stroke Risk Reduced With Patent Foramen Ovale Closure

In adults with PFO, percutaneous and transcatheter PFO closure prevent recurrent stroke.

Electrostimulation Plus Task Training Improves Upper Limb Function After Stroke

Electrostimulation Plus Task Training Improves Upper Limb Function After Stroke

Patients who received adjunctive electrostimulation and task-oriented training had greater improvement than patients who received standard rehabilitation.

Recall Issued for Clopidogrel Bottles

Recall Issued for Clopidogrel Bottles

Clopidogrel tablets were recalled by International Laboratories due to bottle mislabeling.

Predicting Post-Stroke Discharge Destination With Outcome Scores

Predicting Post-Stroke Discharge Destination With Outcome Scores

Outcome measure scores strongly predict discharge destination after acute, subacute stroke

PPAR-γ Agonists May Have Benefits for Reducing Recurrent Stroke Risk

PPAR-γ Agonists May Have Benefits for Reducing Recurrent Stroke Risk

Higher-quality randomized controlled trials are needed in order to better assess the benefits of PPAR-γ agonists in recurrent stroke risk.

Carotid Artery Stenting Rates Continue to Rise Among Elderly

Carotid Artery Stenting Rates Continue to Rise Among Elderly

There was a significant increase in carotid artery stenting from the pre- to post-CREST period.

Subcortical Microinfarcts Associated With Decreased Blood Pressure in Elderly

Subcortical Microinfarcts Associated With Decreased Blood Pressure in Elderly

Greater yearly declines in systolic and diastolic blood pressure were noted in individuals with subcortical microinfarcts.

Beat-to-Beat Blood Pressure Variability Predicts Recurrent Stroke, Cardiovascular Events

Beat-to-Beat Blood Pressure Variability Predicts Recurrent Stroke, Cardiovascular Events

Day-to-day BPV was not as strongly associated with risk for stroke, but was comparably associated with the risk for cardiovascular events.

Stroke Neurocognitive Outcomes Improved With Gingko Biloba Extract

Stroke Neurocognitive Outcomes Improved With Gingko Biloba Extract

Ginkgo biloba extract along with aspirin alleviates cognitive deficits in acute ischemic stroke.

Reduced Stroke Risk With Hormone Therapy Initiated Soon After Menopause Onset

Reduced Stroke Risk With Hormone Therapy Initiated Soon After Menopause Onset

Hormone therapy for up to 5 years following onset of menopause was found to be associated with a decreased risk for ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke.

Apixaban Not Superior to Warfarin for Reducing Stroke Risk in Atrial Fibrillation

Apixaban Not Superior to Warfarin for Reducing Stroke Risk in Atrial Fibrillation

Although there was little difference in efficacy, apixaban did have a better safety profile than warfarin, dabigatran, and rivaroxaban.

Reducing Stroke Risk in Women With Migraine Receiving Hormonal Contraceptives: Consensus Statement

Reducing Stroke Risk in Women With Migraine Receiving Hormonal Contraceptives: Consensus Statement

Women with migraine should avoid high-risk products such as combined oral HCs consisting of >35μg ethinylestradiol.

Use of Antithrombotics in Atrial Fibrillation: Updated Recommendations

Use of Antithrombotics in Atrial Fibrillation: Updated Recommendations

Updated antithrombotic therapy recommendations for patients with atrial fibrillation have been provided.

Identifying Risk of Stroke Following Traumatic Injury

Identifying Risk of Stroke Following Traumatic Injury

Investigators sought to assess the risk of ischemic stroke after a traumatic injury in patients <50 years of age.

Expert Consensus: Managing Bleeding in Patients Taking Oral Anticoagulants

Expert Consensus: Managing Bleeding in Patients Taking Oral Anticoagulants

The ACC released a new concensus on guiding clinicians in managing acute bleeding for patients treated with OACs.

Atrial Tachyarrhythmia Linked to Increased Stroke Risk

Atrial Tachyarrhythmia Linked to Increased Stroke Risk

Older age and premature atrial contractions were independent predictors for stroke risk in patients who had CHA2DS2-VASc scores of 0 or 1.

Higher Stroke Risk Associated With Estrogen Contraceptives in Women With Migraine

Higher Stroke Risk Associated With Estrogen Contraceptives in Women With Migraine

A systematic review aimed to validate whether stroke risk is increased in women taking estrogen-containing contraceptives who have a history of migraine.

Understanding Poststroke Depression: Risk Factors and Treatment

Understanding Poststroke Depression: Risk Factors and Treatment

Depression is one of the most commonly reported complications resulting from stroke.

Induced Hypertension Does Not Improve Outcomes in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, Cerebral Ischemia

Induced Hypertension Does Not Improve Outcomes in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, Cerebral Ischemia

The investigators halted the trial prematurely due to slow recruitment and a lack of treatment efficacy in overall cerebral perfusions.

Evolocumab FDA Approved for Stroke Prevention in Cardiovascular Disease

Evolocumab FDA Approved for Stroke Prevention in Cardiovascular Disease

The FDA has approved evolocumab in adults with CVD for the prevention of heart attacks, strokes, and coronary revascularizations.

Single AbobotulinumtoxinA Injections Safely Reduces Muscle Tone in Chronic Hemiparesis

Single AbobotulinumtoxinA Injections Safely Reduces Muscle Tone in Chronic Hemiparesis

A double-blind study evaluated whether repeated single abobotulinumtoxinA injections administered over a year reduces spastic muscle tone in patients with chronic hemiparesis.

Ablation Reduces Risk of Recurrent Stroke in Atrial Fibrillation

Ablation Reduces Risk of Recurrent Stroke in Atrial Fibrillation

Ablation is associated with reduced risk of recurrent stroke for patients with artrial fibrillation.

Virtual Reality As Effective As Standard Training for Post-Stroke Rehabilitation

Virtual Reality As Effective As Standard Training for Post-Stroke Rehabilitation

After stroke, virtual reality training may be as effective for upper extremity rehabilitation as standard care.

Stroke Associated With Long-Term Brain Effects, Accelerated Functional Decline

Stroke Associated With Long-Term Brain Effects, Accelerated Functional Decline

The effects of ischemic stroke on disability trajectories over an extended period of time were examined.

Hypertension Guidelines Updated by AHA/ACA

Hypertension Guidelines Updated by AHA/ACA

The new guidelines for the diagnostic threshold for stage 1 hypertension were lowered from 140/90 to 130/80.

Bone Mineral Density Associated With Intracranial Aneurysm Presence, Size

Bone Mineral Density Associated With Intracranial Aneurysm Presence, Size

Patients with the lowest bone mineral density had the largest aneurysm size.

Cardiac Index Affects Cerebral Blood Flow Irrespective of CVD

Cardiac Index Affects Cerebral Blood Flow Irrespective of CVD

In older adults, lower cardiac index is linked to lower cerebral blood blow in the temporal lobe.

Thrombectomy Recommended in Stroke Patients With Mismatched Deficit, Infarct Volume

Thrombectomy Recommended in Stroke Patients With Mismatched Deficit, Infarct Volume

Thrombectomy plus standard care is better for patients with acute stroke.

Coffee Consumption May Decrease Stroke Risk

Coffee Consumption May Decrease Stroke Risk

In addition to known risk factors such as blood pressure, age, and cholesterol, coffee and red meat intake were important predictors of heart failure and stroke.

Stroke Risk Reduced With Declining Total Homocysteine Levels

Stroke Risk Reduced With Declining Total Homocysteine Levels

Patients at risk of stroke may benefit from the total homocysteine-lowering effects of folic acid supplementation.

Stroke Risk Predicted by Dietary Sodium:Potassium Ratio

Stroke Risk Predicted by Dietary Sodium:Potassium Ratio

The findings highlight the importance of considering dietary intake as a whole, rather than examining micronutrients on an individual basis.

No Clear Benefit for Early Statin Therapy in Acute Ischemic Stroke

No Clear Benefit for Early Statin Therapy in Acute Ischemic Stroke

Patients enrolled in this study had strokes that were mild in severity, reducing the generalizability of these findings to the broader population.

Race Affects Risk for Intracranial Atherosclerotic Disease

Race Affects Risk for Intracranial Atherosclerotic Disease

There is a higher prevalence of multiple intracranial atherosclerotic plaques in black men.

Combination Treatment Reduces Ischemic Stroke Risk in Acute Coronary Syndrome

Combination Treatment Reduces Ischemic Stroke Risk in Acute Coronary Syndrome

Patients who experience acute coronary syndrome are at greater risk of recurrent ischemic events, including stroke.

Reperfused Penumbral Volume Predicts Outcomes in Acute Ischemic Stroke

Reperfused Penumbral Volume Predicts Outcomes in Acute Ischemic Stroke

All patients included in the study underwent a MRI or multimodal CT approximately 24 hours after onset of stroke.

Infective Endocarditis: Best Practices for Treating Neurologic Complications

Infective Endocarditis: Best Practices for Treating Neurologic Complications

Ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes are a common complication of infective endocarditis, but guidance on intervention is varied.

Ischemic Stroke Risk Increased With Protein Pump Inhibitor Use

Ischemic Stroke Risk Increased With Protein Pump Inhibitor Use

Long-term, high-dose usage of PPIs increases the risk of first-time ischemic stroke and myocardial infarction.

Similar Bleeding Risk for Direct Oral Anticoagulant vs Warfarin in Venous Thromboembolism

Similar Bleeding Risk for Direct Oral Anticoagulant vs Warfarin in Venous Thromboembolism

Direct oral anticoagulant use is not linked with an increase in major bleeding in patients with VTE.

Key Metrics for Defining Optimal Brain Health in Adults: AHA/ASA Guidance

Key Metrics for Defining Optimal Brain Health in Adults: AHA/ASA Guidance

The American Heart and American Stroke Associations have developed an outline focused on the impact of cognitive impairment on public health, and the maintenance and definition of optimal brain health.

Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Stroke on the Rise

Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Stroke on the Rise

While the increase in cardiovascular risk factors is at least partially due to the obesity epidemic, the researchers believe the increase is multifactorial.

ENCHANTED Update: No Role for Low-Dose Alteplase After All?

ENCHANTED Update: No Role for Low-Dose Alteplase After All?

Results from a secondary analysis of the ENCHANTED trial add to a pile of weak data that likely will not affect clinical practice.

Trial Update: Bariatric Surgery vs Dietary Program for Tx of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension

Trial Update: Bariatric Surgery vs Dietary Program for Tx of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension

The trial, sponsored by the University of Birmingham, is currently recruiting participants.

Stroke Severity, Collateral Blood Flow Indicate ASPECTS Decay

Stroke Severity, Collateral Blood Flow Indicate ASPECTS Decay

Significant infarct progression can make patients ineligible for mechanical thrombectomy.

Risk Prediction Models for Bleeding Events in Afib Have Modest Success

Risk Prediction Models for Bleeding Events in Afib Have Modest Success

Risk scores help identify high-risk patients who may benefit from intervention.

Atrial Fibrillation Associated With Cognitive Decline

Atrial Fibrillation Associated With Cognitive Decline

Mechanisms including silent cerebral infarct, microemboli, microbleedings, and cerebral hypoperfusion may be responsible for the link between atrial fibrillation and cognitive decline.

After Stroke, High-Intensity Statin Therapy Linked to Fewer Adverse Events

After Stroke, High-Intensity Statin Therapy Linked to Fewer Adverse Events

The findings support the continuation of high-intensity statin therapy after acute ischemic stroke.

High-Risk Stroke Patients With Insulin Resistance Benefit More From Pioglitazone

High-Risk Stroke Patients With Insulin Resistance Benefit More From Pioglitazone

Insulin-resistant patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack and a high risk of myocardial infarction or recurrent stroke are more likely to derive benefit from pioglitazone than those a lower risk.

Personalized Warfarin Dosing Reduces Risk of Adverse Events

Personalized Warfarin Dosing Reduces Risk of Adverse Events

There is a reduced risk of adverse events associated with genotype-guided warfarin dosing.

Cardiovascular Risk Increases With Discontinuation of Low-Dose Aspirin

Cardiovascular Risk Increases With Discontinuation of Low-Dose Aspirin

For long-term low-dose aspirin users, there is a 30% increased risk of CVD events with discontinuation of aspirin.

Stroke Outcomes Not Improved With Low-Dose Oxygen

Stroke Outcomes Not Improved With Low-Dose Oxygen

Low-dose oxygen use does not reduce death or disability at 3 months among patients with acute stroke.

Thromboembolic Events Most Frequent Mechanism in Postoperative Ischemic Stroke

Thromboembolic Events Most Frequent Mechanism in Postoperative Ischemic Stroke

A better understanding of characteristics of cerebral lesions may help expedite treatment and improve functional outcomes.

Incidence of Seizures and Epilepsy High in Ischemic Stroke

Incidence of Seizures and Epilepsy High in Ischemic Stroke

Newer antiepileptic drugs were associated with fewer adverse effects in patients with ischemic stroke.

Rivaroxaban, Warfarin Show Similar Efficacy in AFib-Related Ischemic Stroke

Rivaroxaban, Warfarin Show Similar Efficacy in AFib-Related Ischemic Stroke

The investigators noted that rivaroxaban was associated with significantly reduced length of hospital stay compared with warfarin.

Intravenous Thrombolysis Plus Mechanical Thrombectomy Improves Stroke Outcomes

Intravenous Thrombolysis Plus Mechanical Thrombectomy Improves Stroke Outcomes

The findings align with current guidelines to administer IV tPA regardless of whether or not a patient with ischemic stroke is set to undergo mechanical thrombectomy.

Early Discharge Services Reduce Hospital Stay, Disability After Stroke

Early Discharge Services Reduce Hospital Stay, Disability After Stroke

Early supported discharge services may also help care facilities better manage their need for hospital beds and conventional hospital stay costs.

Risk of Stroke, Mortality Reduced With High Stem Cell Factor

Risk of Stroke, Mortality Reduced With High Stem Cell Factor

Participants with high baseline levels of SCF had lower all-cause mortality and reduced risk of heart failure, stroke, and myocardial infarction.

Predicting Cerebral Edema Severity After Stroke

Predicting Cerebral Edema Severity After Stroke

There is some evidence that suggests intravenous thrombolysis for stroke may impair the blood-brain barrier and cause cerebral edema.

Ischemic Preconditioning: Exploring the Potential to Reduce the Impact of Stroke

Ischemic Preconditioning: Exploring the Potential to Reduce the Impact of Stroke

Brief periods of oxygen deprivation to the brain have been shown to provide neuroprotective effects that reduce stroke infarct size and improve recovery times.

Noncontrast CT Markers Predict Hematoma Growth Risk in Hemorrhagic Stroke

Noncontrast CT Markers Predict Hematoma Growth Risk in Hemorrhagic Stroke

Surprisingly, no evidence was found to suggest that patients with these markers benefit from intensive blood pressure reduction.

No Benefit of Contact Aspiration Over Stent Retriever in Ischemic Stroke

No Benefit of Contact Aspiration Over Stent Retriever in Ischemic Stroke

The findings may be less applicable to low-volume stroke centers who have less experience in this treatment.

Stroke Risk Increased in Methamphetamine Users

Stroke Risk Increased in Methamphetamine Users

Younger adults who use methamphetamine are at a greater risk for stroke.

Stroke Risk Increased in Patients With Hip Fracture

Stroke Risk Increased in Patients With Hip Fracture

The 30-day cumulative incidences of stroke were 2.16% and 0.21% for patients with hip fracture and the general population.

Unprovoked Venous Thromboembolism May Be Sign of Occult Cancer

Unprovoked Venous Thromboembolism May Be Sign of Occult Cancer

About 1 in 20 patients with VTE have occult cancer detected within a year.

Stroke Risk Not Increased With Radioiodine Therapy for Thyroid Cancer

Stroke Risk Not Increased With Radioiodine Therapy for Thyroid Cancer

There is no increased risk for stroke for people with thyroid cancer who receive radioiodine therapy.

Adult Ischemic Stroke Associated With Higher Childhood BMI

Adult Ischemic Stroke Associated With Higher Childhood BMI

Investigators found a positive association between higher childhood BMI scores and early adult ischemic stroke.

Stroke Risk Increased After Hepatitis C Infection

Stroke Risk Increased After Hepatitis C Infection

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection may also increase the risk of stroke.

Stroke Incidence Down in Men

Stroke Incidence Down in Men

The incidence of intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage was stable in both men and women.

THRIVE Score Accurately Predicts Ischemic Stroke Treatment Outcomes

THRIVE Score Accurately Predicts Ischemic Stroke Treatment Outcomes

THRIVE scores not only accurately predicted good and poor outcomes in stroke patients following IVT or ET, but also the degree of ischemia following these treatments.

Expert Analysis: Tenecteplase Yet to Prove Itself vs Alteplase

Expert Analysis: Tenecteplase Yet to Prove Itself vs Alteplase

Despite disappointing results, tenecteplase's story in stroke treatment might not be over.

Poststroke Deficit Recrudescence: Signs and Symptoms to Look For

Poststroke Deficit Recrudescence: Signs and Symptoms to Look For

Women and patients of African-American race face an increased risk of experiencing poststroke recrudescence.

Recurrent Stroke Risk Increased Without Statin Use

Recurrent Stroke Risk Increased Without Statin Use

There is an increased risk of a recurrent stroke after discontinuing statin therapy 3 to 6 months post initial ischemic stroke.

Poor Glycemic Control After Ischemic Stroke Linked to Poor Outcomes

Poor Glycemic Control After Ischemic Stroke Linked to Poor Outcomes

Only 16% of patients had an adequate response to conventional therapy, with patients who didn't considered "non-responders."

Statin Discharge Prescribing Varies in Stroke Belt and Non-Stroke Belt Residents

Statin Discharge Prescribing Varies in Stroke Belt and Non-Stroke Belt Residents

Less than half of individuals with ischemic stroke receive a prescription for statins.

Dementia Risk Significantly Increased for Individuals Born in High Stroke Mortality States

Dementia Risk Significantly Increased for Individuals Born in High Stroke Mortality States

Birthplace is a significant risk factor for dementia, even after adjusting for educational levels, race, and life-course vascular risk factors.

Minimum Headache Duration Prompting Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Workup

Minimum Headache Duration Prompting Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Workup

Subarachnoid hemorrhage must be ruled out in patients with acute onset of severe headache.

Predicting Major Bleeding in Patients With Stroke on Antiplatelet Agents

Predicting Major Bleeding in Patients With Stroke on Antiplatelet Agents

There are a limited number of prediction models that identify patients at risk of major bleeding after stroke or TIA.

Update: Diagnosing Neuropathic Pain in Stroke, MS, Spinal Cord Injury

Update: Diagnosing Neuropathic Pain in Stroke, MS, Spinal Cord Injury

The update focused on diagnosis of neuropathic pain in patients with spinal cord injury, stroke, or multiple sclerosis.

Intravenous Idarucizumab Successfully Reverses Dabigatran

Intravenous Idarucizumab Successfully Reverses Dabigatran

At 90-days, the rate of thrombotic events in both groups was low.

Penumbra Stroke Revascularization Device Recalled

Penumbra Stroke Revascularization Device Recalled

The Penumbra 3D revascularization device was recalled by the FDA because of a risk of the delivery wire breaking during use.

Stroke Prevention Therapy Safe, Effective for Cancer Patients

Stroke Prevention Therapy Safe, Effective for Cancer Patients

Rivaroxaban treatment for nonvalvular AF in patients with cancer is safe.

Even Stable Survivors Face 5-Year Risk of Second Stroke

Even Stable Survivors Face 5-Year Risk of Second Stroke

The risk of a second stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) remains considerable for at least 5 years after the first event.

Intensive BP Lowering Does Not Benefit ICH With Spot Sign

Intensive BP Lowering Does Not Benefit ICH With Spot Sign

Although spot sign predicted ICH expansion, it proved to be a less robust diagnostic marker than demonstrated by previous single-center cohort studies.

Weight Gain in Adolescence Linked to Later Stroke Risk

Weight Gain in Adolescence Linked to Later Stroke Risk

An increase in BMI during puberty and adolescence was associated with increase risk of stroke.

Primary Stroke Center Protocol Significantly Improves Outcomes

Primary Stroke Center Protocol Significantly Improves Outcomes

Reduced door-to-needle times have been shown to improve outcomes after stroke.

Cirrhosis Associated With Increased Stroke Risk

Cirrhosis Associated With Increased Stroke Risk

Patients with cirrhosis had a 2.17% per year incidence of stroke compared with 1.11% per year incidence of stroke in patients without cirrhosis.

Long-Term Stroke Outcomes Improved With Nonconventional Therapy

Long-Term Stroke Outcomes Improved With Nonconventional Therapy

Music-and-rhythm therapy has also been shown to help improve balance and memory.

Sign Up for Free e-newsletters

CME Focus