Proinflammatory cytokines, tryptophan catabolites, and the gut-brain axis may have key roles in chronic fatigue and depression in patients with multiple sclerosis.
Depression has been linked to elevated markers of inflammation, and aspirin, a nonsteroid, anti-inflammatory medication, can irreversibly inhibit cyclooxygenase-1 and 2.
Convergent abnormalities were observed in secondary analyses across portions of the amygdala, hippocampus, subgenual cingulate cortex, and putamen.
Migraine and Headache
The presence of psychiatric disorders in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension is associated with poor treatment outcomes.