David G. Grenache, Author at Neurology Advisor

David G. Grenache

All articles by David G. Grenache

Gigantism

At a Glance Gigantism is a rare endocrine disorder caused by the hypersecretion of growth hormone (GH) from the anterior pituitary gland in growing children prior to the fusion of the epiphyseal growth plates. Although a GH-secreting adenoma of the pituitary gland is the cause of giantism in some children, hypersecretion of GH in children…

Anterior Pituitary, Growth Hormone (GH) Deficiency

At a Glance Growth hormone (GH) deficiency in adults is difficult to identify, because its manifestations are subtle and nonspecific. As such, laboratory investigations are performed in adults who are known to have pituitary disease. Clinically, GH deficiency in adults can result in a decrease in lean body mass, dyslipidemia, and impaired cardiovascular function. There…

Hyperprolactinemia Associated with Pituitary Adenoma

At a Glance Hyperprolactinemia is the most common endocrine disorder of the hypothalamic-pituitary unit. In premenopausal women, hyperprolactinemia causes hypogonadism leading to symptoms of infertility, oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea, and galactorrhea. Hyperprolactinemia is often clinically silent in postmenopausal women who, by definition, are already hypogonadal. In men, hyperprolactinemia causes hypogonadism manifested by decreased libido, impotence, infertility,…

Hyperprolactinemia Associated with Drugs

At a Glance Hyperprolactinemia is the most common endocrine disorder of the hypothalamic-pituitary unit. In premenopausal women, hyperprolactinemia causes hypogonadism, leading to symptoms of infertility, oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea, and galactorrhea. Hyperprolactinemia is often clinically silent in postmenopausal women who, by definition, are already hypogonadal. In men, hyperprolactinemia causes hypogonadism manifested by decreased libido, impotence, infertility,…

Hyperprolactinemia Associated with Hypothalamic Disorder

At a Glance Hyperprolactinemia is the most common endocrine disorder of the hypothalamic-pituitary unit. In premenopausal women, hyperprolactinemia causes hypogonadism, leading to symptoms of infertility, oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea, and galactorrhea. Hyperprolactinemia is often clinically silent in postmenopausal women who, by definition, are already hypogonadal. In men, hyperprolactinemia causes hypogonadism manifested by decreased libido, impotence, infertility,…

Anterior Pituitary, Prolactin Deficiency

At a Glance Prolactin deficiency is extremely rare and is typically encountered only after the anterior pituitary gland is destroyed by infarction. The inability to lactate after delivery of an infant is the only known presentation of prolactin deficiency. What Tests Should I Request to Confirm My Clinical Dx? In addition, what follow-up tests might…

Acromegaly

At a Glance Acromegaly is a rare chronic endocrine disorder caused by the hypersecretion of growth hormone (GH) from the anterior pituitary gland in adults. A GH-secreting adenoma of the pituitary gland is the most common cause of acromegaly. Rarely, GH may be secreted by some malignancies. Acromegaly is indolent with symptoms often preceding diagnosis…

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