Sheila Dawling, Author at Neurology Advisor

Sheila Dawling

All articles by Sheila Dawling

Sickle Cell Anemia

At a Glance Sickle cell anemia, or homozygous hemoglobin S, may be expected in any person with anemia (hemoglobin < 0 g/dL), abnormal peripheral blood findings, a family history of sickle cell trait or sickle cell anemia, and/or a positive newborn screen for sickle cell anemia. The sickle mutation is most commonly found in persons…

Intoxication with Ethanol

At a Glance Ethanol intoxication should be considered in any patient in whom there is unexplained loss of consciousness, altered sensorium, or onset of seizures. A toxic dose is 5g/kg in an adult and 3 g/kg in a child. Ingestion of ethanol is common and is estimated to be responsible for some 600,000 emergency department…

Intoxication with Isopropanol

At a Glance Isopropanol (2-propanol; IPA) intoxication should be considered in any patient in whom there is rapid unexplained loss of consciousness or central nervous system (CNS) depression, particularly with a history of a liquid ingestion and fruity aroma on the breath. The demonstration of ketonemia and ketonuria without an anion gap metabolic acidosis should…

Intoxication with Methanol

At a Glance Methanol intoxication is not common but is frequently severe or fatal. Rapid recognition and prompt treatment, especially of the acidosis, are crucial to outcome if permanent visual impairment and brain damage are to be prevented. In the absence of an exposure history, methanol intoxication is difficult to diagnose. Clinical manifestations are usually…

Overdose of Ethylene Glycol

At a Glance Ethylene glycol poisoning is not common and is often unintentional, as it is a colorless slightly viscous sweet-tasting liquid. Rapid recognition and prompt treatment are crucial to prevent renal failure and other serious sequelae. In the absence of an exposure history, ethylene glycol intoxication is difficult to diagnose. Clinical manifestations are usually…

Overdose of Propylene Glycol

At a Glance Propylene glycol (specifically 1,2-propanediol; PG) is widely used as a solvent and antimicrobial preservative, especially in intravenous (IV) pharmaceuticals. Poisoning is, therefore, usually iatrogenic, under-appreciated, and under-diagnosed. Since it is considered less toxic than ethylene glycol, it has been substituted for it in some antifreeze, and the incidence of toxic ingestion is…

Anemia Associated with Hemoglobin S-Alpha Thalassemia

At a Glance Coinheritance of an α-thalassemia with homozygous SS disease should be suspected in a patient with known Sickle Anemia who has a less severe clinical presentation than expected or who has a family history of the same. These patients have a modestly elevated hemoglobin F (<20% of the total hemoglobin) in the absence…

Anemia Associated with Hemoglobin S-Beta Thalassemia

At a Glance A ß-thalassemia may be coinherited with both sickle trait or homozygous sickle disease and will reduce the amount of ß-globin chain production. The presentation is highly variable, depending on the severity of the ß-thalassemia (from mild dysregulation through to null production and whether it is coinherited with Sickle Cell Anemia or with…

Anemia Associated with Hemoglobin S-O Arab

At a Glance Compound heterozygosity for hemoglobin O-Arab and hemoglobin S is rare but should be suspected in patients with known sickle trait who have an unexpectedly severe course reminiscent of homozygous Sickle Cell Anemia or who have a family history of the same. Patients with hemoglobin S/O-Arab have a modestly elevated hemoglobin F (5-18%…

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