Alzheimer disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that mostly affects the medial temporal lobe and associative neocortical structures. Biomarker-based classification systems, advancing technology, and a greater understanding of predictive factors have improved the diagnosis and detection of preclinical Alzheimer disease.
Seropositivity to AQP4 distinguishes NMOSD from other demyelinating diseases, but some patients with NMOSD are AQP4 negative.
Fatigue is considered a multidimensional symptom of multiple sclerosis that remains one of the least understood and among the most difficult to diagnose and manage. This article explores current understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms of fatigue in multiple sclerosis and its differential diagnosis, both of which are critical for individualized management.