Children with a complex motor disorder, characterized by a combination of movement and posture abnormalities (eg, spasticity and dystonia), were enrolled.
Researchers collected and analyzed data on age at onset, sex, family history of dystonia, and the presence of associated anatomic sites with dystonia.
Although treatment with botulinum toxin is effective for pain and posturing associated with cervical dystonia, myoclonus and tremor remain difficult to treat and contribute to compromised quality of life for patients with this movement disorder.
There is speculation that dystonia is the result of dysfunction occurring in either the cerebellum or basal ganglia or as a result of an abnormal interaction between the two.
Alcohol improves cerebellar-learning deficit in patients with myoclonus-dystonia.
Treatment of chronic, but not episodic migraine with botulinum toxin has been added to the treatment guidelines.
The disorders react similarly to basal ganglia deep brain stimulation.
The role of GCH1 mutations in Parkinson's disease is complicated by the mutation's seemingly exclusive role in dopa-responsive dystonia.
The oral therapy may be commercially available as a dietary supplement as early as 2016.
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