Higher levels of vitamin D were associated with decreased disease activity in people with RRMS.
Significant differences vs. placebo were maintained over 24 months.
The test can be completed in about one minute and is free to use for clinicians and researchers.
DICAM was strongly linked with expression of ROR-γ, IL-23R, IL-17, IL-22, GM-CSF, and GZMB expression in human CD4+ lymphocytes.
The additional measure of brain volume loss results in a more comprehensive evaluation of disease activity in RRMS.
Changes to brain structure indicate possible underlying connection to idiopathic major depressive disorder.
Participants also reported a reduction in anxiety and subjective cognitive impairment.
Compared to those who continued smoking, those who stopped experienced a significant decline in the rate of brain volume loss.
The ratio was also predictive of conversion to secondary-progressive MS.
CSF NfL levels were predictive of brain volume loss at first sign of MS and follow-up.
Spinal cord gray matter atrophy was found to be most relevant compared to other conventional MRI metrics.
Compared to RRMS, progressive MS had greater cord atrophy and lesions.
No significant treatment effect on disease progression or brain or cervical spinal atrophy was observed.
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