General Neurology

Human neural stem cell grafts in rhesus monkeys improve motor function after spinal cord injury [PreClinical]

Following cervical spinal cord injury, rhesus monkeys were grafted with human neural progenitor cells.

A Zika vaccine could virtually eliminate prenatal infections

Zika vaccine provides 90% coverage and is targeted for immunization of women aged 9 to 49 years.

Flucytosine plus fluconazole is noninferior to amphotericin B in treating cryptococcal meningitis

Treatment of cryptococcal meningitis with two weeks of flucytosine and fluconazole was noninferior to two weeks of amphotericin B.

Early intrauterine Zika infection linked to birth defects among infants in the US French Territories

A prospective cohort including pregnant women in the US French Territories with PCR-confirmed Zika virus (ZIKV) infection found a 7% overall risk of neurologic and ocular defects among subsequent offspring.

Untrimmed Toenails: A Marker of Functional Status in Older Patients?

Untrimmed Toenails: A Marker of Functional Status in Older Patients?

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For older patients, toenail length can provide important insight into a patient's functional status.

Preserved Neurogenesis in Hippocampus of Healthy Seniors

Preserved Neurogenesis in Hippocampus of Healthy Seniors

Noting that aging humans are thought to exhibit waning neurogenesis and exercise-induced angiogenesis, researchers examined whole-autopsy hippocampi from healthy humans.

Relapse in Major Depression Linked to Brain Cortical Changes

Relapse in Major Depression Linked to Brain Cortical Changes

For patients with major depressive disorde, relapse is associated with brain cortical changes over two years.

Early Infection With Zika Virus Associated With More Birth Defects in Pregnancy

Early Infection With Zika Virus Associated With More Birth Defects in Pregnancy

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Among pregnant women with Zika virus infection, birth defects were reported more often in fetuses and infants whose mothers had been infected with the virus early in their pregnancies.

Neural Markers of Depression Resilience ID'd in Female Teens

Neural Markers of Depression Resilience ID'd in Female Teens

Adolescent females at high familial risk of depression who do not go on to develop depression have compensatory functional connectivity patterns in emotion regulatory networks.

Amygdala Neurons Reduced in Adults With Autism

Amygdala Neurons Reduced in Adults With Autism

Researchers reported the results of a stereological analysis of the number of neurons in the amygdala nuclei to compare neurotypical development to autism spectrum disorder development.

Predicting Neurological Outcome in Unconscious Cardiac Arrest With White Matter Fractional Anisotropy

Predicting Neurological Outcome in Unconscious Cardiac Arrest With White Matter Fractional Anisotropy

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The normalized WWM-FA value demonstrated the greatest prognostic accuracy compared with MRI sequences or standard criteria for unfavorable neurological outcome.

Navigating the Ethics of Agents for Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement

Navigating the Ethics of Agents for Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement

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The focus on enhanced cognitive function could sideline equally important aspects of life such as health and relationships.

Hormone Therapy May Impact Brain Structure, Cognition

Hormone Therapy May Impact Brain Structure, Cognition

3 years after menopausal HT, change in brain volumes were not significantly different from placebo.

Anesthesia, Surgery Affect Postoperative Neurological Outcomes

Anesthesia, Surgery Affect Postoperative Neurological Outcomes

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Investigators examined plasma tau concentrations in blood samples obtained from patients who received general anesthesia for surgery.

Risk of Altered Mental Status in Gabapentin-Treated Patients Explored

Risk of Altered Mental Status in Gabapentin-Treated Patients Explored

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The study included 110,184 adults (mean age: 76 years) newly started on gabapentin therapy in Ontario, Canada.

Altered Neural Responses in Memory Processing in T1DM

Altered Neural Responses in Memory Processing in T1DM

Significantly stronger neural responses in superior parietal cortices during memory encoding in T1DM.

Zika Virus-Associated Neurogenic Bladder Requires Prompt Management

Zika Virus-Associated Neurogenic Bladder Requires Prompt Management

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Prompt identification may help reduce the risk for subsequent renal failure and minimize overall disease burden.

FDA Fast Tracks Treatment for Fragile X Syndrome

FDA Fast Tracks Treatment for Fragile X Syndrome

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OV101 has previously been granted Orphan Drug status for Fragile X and Fast Track status for Angelman syndrome.

No Benefit for MRI After Normal Cervical CT in Blunt Trauma

No Benefit for MRI After Normal Cervical CT in Blunt Trauma

MRI had lower health benefit and higher cost compared with no follow-up after normal CT findings.

Hep C Compounds Alcoholism's Effect on Brain Volume

Hep C Compounds Alcoholism's Effect on Brain Volume

Deleterious effect of alcohol dependence on frontal cortical volumes also compounded by drug use.

Gut Bacteria May Be Tied to Brain Dysfunction From Sepsis

Gut Bacteria May Be Tied to Brain Dysfunction From Sepsis

Presence of bacteria is associated with higher neuroinflammatory markers in mice and humans.

Treatment Effects Often Exaggerated in Early Clinical Studies

Treatment Effects Often Exaggerated in Early Clinical Studies

Findings in early clinical studies that evaluate drugs or devices for chronic conditions are often exaggerated.

Triptans Plus SSRI/SNRI Use Associated With Lower Risk for Serotonin Syndrome

Triptans Plus SSRI/SNRI Use Associated With Lower Risk for Serotonin Syndrome

A low risk of serotonin syndrome is seen in association with concomitant use of triptans and SSRIs.

Uber Health Transports Patients to Appointments

Uber Health Transports Patients to Appointments

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Uber has a new system that allows physician offices to book rides for patients up to 30 days in advance.

Genetics May Hold the Key to Decoding Periodic Paralysis

Genetics May Hold the Key to Decoding Periodic Paralysis

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The cluster of diagnoses known as periodic paralyses — including hypokalemic periodic paralysis, hyperkalemic periodic paralysis, and Anderson-Tawil syndrome — are rare genetic disorders of spontaneous muscle weakness or paralysis that can last from minutes to days.

Early Hyperoxia Exposure Linked to Poor Neurologic Function After Cardiac Arrest Resuscitation

Early Hyperoxia Exposure Linked to Poor Neurologic Function After Cardiac Arrest Resuscitation

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A significantly greater proportion of patients with early hyperoxia exposure experienced poor neurological function vs patients without exposure.

CNS Abnormalities Common in Erdheim-Chester Disease

CNS Abnormalities Common in Erdheim-Chester Disease

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Cognitive change, diplopia, dysarthria, dysphagia, focal sensory deficit, focal motor deficit, headache, and imbalance, were noted in 47% of the cohort.

 Are Casual Observers Able to Accurately Localize Areas of Facial Paralysis?

Are Casual Observers Able to Accurately Localize Areas of Facial Paralysis?

Ability to identify facial paralysis increases with the severity of the condition.

US Will Produce Radioisotope for MRI, FDA Says

US Will Produce Radioisotope for MRI, FDA Says

The FDA announced the approval of the RadioGenix System.

Ethical Considerations in New Coma Research

Ethical Considerations in New Coma Research

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Research on therapies that may rouse a patient in a persistent vegetative state needs to include the ethical considerations of waking a patient in a state of incomplete recovery.

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