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Editor’s Note: This article was originally posted on Clinical Advisor on 08/24/2021. Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder characterized by severe and persistent daytime sleepiness. The International Classification of Sleep Disorders-Third Edition recognizes 2 types of narcolepsy: narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) and type 2 (NT2). NT1 is associated with the symptom of cataplexy, the sudden loss of…

The clinical course of MS is highly heterogeneous but can be broadly classified as relapsing MS (RMS). As MS is a heterogeneous and progressive condition, in this article we review identifying specific disease biomarkers that can help to predict the severity of disease course, facilitate diagnosis, and initiate individualized treatment decision-making.

Spinal muscular atrophy is one of the most common causes of infant mortality. Historically, SMA treatment consisted of supportive care only. The arrival of disease-modifying therapies has made a major impact on the prognosis for patients with SMA. This article highlights therapies approved by the FDA, such as survival motor neuron 2 (SMN2) modulators, SMN1 gene therapy, and the use of newborn screening to commence treatment in the pre-symptomatic period.

Relapsing–remitting MS was once thought to be mediated primarily by T lymphocytes, but emerging evidence points toward B lymphocytes as another potential target. Anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody therapies that deplete B lymphocytes have shown promise in reducing disability, halting new brain lesions, and decreasing the number of treatments required to limit disease activity.