Pediatric Neurology News Archive

Smaller Heads Related to Opioid-Related Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

Smaller Heads Related to Opioid-Related Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

Chronic opioid use during pregnancy that causes neonatal abstinence syndrome is associated with smaller neonatal head circumference.

NBEA Gene Associated With Neurodevelopmental Delay, Childhood Epilepsy

NBEA Gene Associated With Neurodevelopmental Delay, Childhood Epilepsy

Investigators analyzed the NBEA gene to determine whether or not it could be a biomarker for early childhood epilepsy.

Does Gestational Age at Birth Affect Seizure Risk After Measles Vaccine Administration?

Does Gestational Age at Birth Affect Seizure Risk After Measles Vaccine Administration?

The study utilized the Vaccine Safety Datalink and included children who received the first dose of a measles-containing vaccine between 12 and 23 months old during the study period of January 1, 2003 to September 20, 2015.

Does Total Benzodiazepine Dose Affect Pediatric ICU Duration for Status Epilepticus?

Does Total Benzodiazepine Dose Affect Pediatric ICU Duration for Status Epilepticus?

Low total benzodiazepine dosing is linked to longer intensive care unit stays and seizure duration in children.

Case Description Can Reliably Define Acute Flaccid Myelitis

Case Description Can Reliably Define Acute Flaccid Myelitis

A case description can reliably define patients with acute flaccid myelitis.

CDC Announces Acute Flaccid Myelitis Task Force

CDC Announces Acute Flaccid Myelitis Task Force

A task force to investigate a rising number of cases of a rare polio-like disease among children in the United States has been created by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

CDC: Cases of Polio-Like Illness Still Increasing in the US

CDC: Cases of Polio-Like Illness Still Increasing in the US

Cases of a polio-like condition that mainly affects children continue to rise this year in the United States, health officials say.

No Drop Seen in CT Use for Pediatric Head Trauma

No Drop Seen in CT Use for Pediatric Head Trauma

CT neuroimaging did not decrease from 2007 to 2015 among pediatric patients evaluated in the emergency department for head injury.

Global Cognition Up for Youth Meeting Movement Guidelines

Global Cognition Up for Youth Meeting Movement Guidelines

Meeting recommendations on adequate sleep time and physical activity and limiting recreational screen time are associated with superior global cognition among children.

Cannabinoid Trials Needed for Peds Neurologic Disorders

Cannabinoid Trials Needed for Peds Neurologic Disorders

There is an urgent need for clinical trials to investigate the use of cannabinoids in pediatric patients with neurological disorders.

Educational Disabilities More Likely With Neonatal Abstinence

Educational Disabilities More Likely With Neonatal Abstinence

Children with a history of neonatal abstinence syndrome are more likely to be referred for a disability evaluation and meet criteria for a disability.

Parents' Technology Use Can Negatively Impact Children

Parents' Technology Use Can Negatively Impact Children

Parents' use of digital devices may exacerbate their child's poor behavior.

Early Talk, Interaction Predicts School-Age Language Outcomes

Early Talk, Interaction Predicts School-Age Language Outcomes

Talk and interaction during early childhood, especially during 18 to 24 months, is associated with language and cognitive outcomes.

Last 20 Years Saw Increase in Prevalence of ADHD in Children

Last 20 Years Saw Increase in Prevalence of ADHD in Children

From 1997-1998 to 2015-2016, there was an increase in the prevalence of ADHD among children,

Cerebral Blood Flow Changes in Pediatric Patients With CKD

Cerebral Blood Flow Changes in Pediatric Patients With CKD

Pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease have higher global cerebral blood flow and regional differences in CBF.

Neurodevelopmental Anomalies, Birth Defects Linked to Zika ID'd

Neurodevelopmental Anomalies, Birth Defects Linked to Zika ID'd

Many children of mothers with evidence of confirmed or possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy do not undergo all recommended evaluations.

Alcohol Exposure Via Breastmilk May Affect Infant Development

Alcohol Exposure Via Breastmilk May Affect Infant Development

Exposing infants to alcohol through breastfeeding may reduce their cognitive ability at age 6 to 7 years.

Presence of CHI3L1 and NFL in CSF Predicts Risk for Demyelinating Syndromes

Presence of CHI3L1 and NFL in CSF Predicts Risk for Demyelinating Syndromes

Investigators assess the diagnostic value of 2 CSF biomarkers to distinguish pediatric acquired demyelinating syndromes from non-acquired demyelinating syndromes.

Outpatient Opioid Prescriptions for Children Often Filled

Outpatient Opioid Prescriptions for Children Often Filled

Children often fill outpatient opioid prescriptions, with the most common indication for dental procedures.

Specific Neuroimaging Findings May Predict School-Age Cognitive Disability in Preterm Infants

Specific Neuroimaging Findings May Predict School-Age Cognitive Disability in Preterm Infants

Severe and adverse late findings on neonatal cranial ultrasound and MRI in preterm infants, including cerebellar lesions and white matter abnormalities, may predict cognitive impairment and disability at 6 to 7 years of age.

Reduced Cognitive Function for Students During Heat Waves

Reduced Cognitive Function for Students During Heat Waves

Cognitive function deficits resulting from indoor thermal conditions during heat waves affect university students.

Disease-Specific ICD Code Helps Identify Infantile Spasms in Claims Data

Disease-Specific ICD Code Helps Identify Infantile Spasms in Claims Data

Claims data spanning 4 years were obtained from a pediatric accountable care organization.

Prenatal Folic Acid Fortification May Affect Cortical Development

Prenatal Folic Acid Fortification May Affect Cortical Development

Gestational exposure to folic acid fortification is associated with cortical development.

Increased Multigenerational ADHD Risk Linked to DES Exposure During Pregnancy

Increased Multigenerational ADHD Risk Linked to DES Exposure During Pregnancy

Investigators sought to investigate the association between the use of diethylstilbestrol during pregnancy on risk for ADHD in subsequent generations.

In Children, Food Insecurity Tied to Behavior, Cognition

In Children, Food Insecurity Tied to Behavior, Cognition

Food insecurity may be linked to behavioral problems and poorer cognitive performance in children.

Early Preterm Birth Linked to Increased ADHD Symptoms

Early Preterm Birth Linked to Increased ADHD Symptoms

Early preterm birth is associated with a higher level of ADHD symptoms in preschool children.

Child Neuroblastoma Survivors at Risk for Psych Impairment

Child Neuroblastoma Survivors at Risk for Psych Impairment

Neuroblastoma survivors are at elevated risk for psychological impairment.

No Benefit for Measuring Closing Pressure in Pediatric Pseudotumor Cerebri Syndrome

No Benefit for Measuring Closing Pressure in Pediatric Pseudotumor Cerebri Syndrome

No significant association among closing pressure, amount of CSF removed, and time to resolution of papilledema is reported in patients with PTCS.

Knowledge Gaps Found for Non-Drug Therapy in Peds ADHD

Knowledge Gaps Found for Non-Drug Therapy in Peds ADHD

There are considerable gaps in knowledge relating to the effectiveness of non-pharmacologic treatments for ADHD in pediatric patients.

Executive Function Improved With Prenatal Exposure to SSRIs

Executive Function Improved With Prenatal Exposure to SSRIs

Children with prenatal exposure to serotonin reuptake inhibitors have better executive function at age 12 years.

Maternal, Child Sugar Intake Could Impact Child Cognition

Maternal, Child Sugar Intake Could Impact Child Cognition

Greater sugar consumption during pregnancy and early childhood may adversely impact child cognition.

Caffeine Therapy for Apnea of Prematurity Safe Over Long Term

Caffeine Therapy for Apnea of Prematurity Safe Over Long Term

Neonatal caffeine therapy for apnea of prematurity has no detrimental long-term effects and even improves some neurologic measures.

Psychosis Could Be a Potential Side Effect of Steroid Treatment in Kids

Psychosis Could Be a Potential Side Effect of Steroid Treatment in Kids

Iatrogenic steroid-induced psychosis is a rare side effect of glucocorticoid therapy which is mostly seen in adults, although it has been reported in children and adolescents.

Prenatal Exposure to SSRI Tied to Fetal Brain Development

Prenatal Exposure to SSRI Tied to Fetal Brain Development

Prenatal exposure to a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor is associated with fetal brain development.

White Matter Tracts Differ for Infants With Fragile X Syndrome

White Matter Tracts Differ for Infants With Fragile X Syndrome

There are significant differences in the development of 12 fiber tracts between infants with fragile X syndrome and controls.

Improving Cognitive Outcomes in Preemies an Uphill Battle

Improving Cognitive Outcomes in Preemies an Uphill Battle

Preventive strategies for reducing the high incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia may be key to the improvement of long-term outcomes in EP/VP children.

Newborns With Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome May Benefit From Rooming-In vs NICU Care

Newborns With Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome May Benefit From Rooming-In vs NICU Care

Rooming-in with the mother or family members may help reduce pharmacotherapy and increase breastfeeding in newborns with NAS.

Prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in the US

Prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in the US

Fetal alcohol syndrome prevalence ranges from 1.1% to 5.0% among first graders in 4 US communities.

Ketamine, Propofol Help Reduce Recovery Time in Children Undergoing Sedated MRI

Ketamine, Propofol Help Reduce Recovery Time in Children Undergoing Sedated MRI

For children undergoing MRI with deep sedation, a shorter recovery time is associated with use of ketamine at induction followed by propofol infusion.

FDA Expands Pediatric Age Range for Contrast Agent

FDA Expands Pediatric Age Range for Contrast Agent

The FDA has approved an expanded age range for MultiHance contrast agent.

Nutrients Key to Neurodevelopment in Child's First 3 years

Nutrients Key to Neurodevelopment in Child's First 3 years

Providing adequate nurtrients during a child's first 3 years is important for optimal neurodevelopment.

Neurodevelopment in Preemies Not Affected by Glucocorticoid Therapy

Neurodevelopment in Preemies Not Affected by Glucocorticoid Therapy

There is no increased rate of neurodevelopmental disability in preterm infants using inhaled glucocorticoids.

Language Delay May Be Linked to Prenatal Acetaminophen Use

Language Delay May Be Linked to Prenatal Acetaminophen Use

A language delay among girls is linked to acetaminophen use during pregnancy.

Fetal MRI Analysis, Machine Learning Identifies Candidates for CSF Diversion

Fetal MRI Analysis, Machine Learning Identifies Candidates for CSF Diversion

Multiple imaging characteristics from fetal MRI analysis helped to yield a model with the ability to classify postnatal CSF diversion status with a high level of accuracy.

Folate Supplementation May Help Reduce Autistic Traits in Children Exposed to AEDs In Utero

Folate Supplementation May Help Reduce Autistic Traits in Children Exposed to AEDs In Utero

Children who are exposed to AEDs in utero may have a reduced risk of autistic traits.

Paternal Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Use Linked to ADHD in Offspring

Paternal Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Use Linked to ADHD in Offspring

Paternal use of SSRIs before conception is linked to an increased risk of ADHD in offspring.

Clinical Factors Associated With Pediatric Brain Neoplasms

Clinical Factors Associated With Pediatric Brain Neoplasms

A study pinpointed clinical factors associated with pediatric brain neoplasms to assist clinicians in making neuroimaging decisions.

Therapeutic Hypothermia May Reduce Disability in Newborns With Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy

Therapeutic Hypothermia May Reduce Disability in Newborns With Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy

A randomized clinical trial examined whether term infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy benefited from therapeutic cooling.

Atypical Antipsychotic Use in Children Reduced With Peer Review Prior Authorization Process

Atypical Antipsychotic Use in Children Reduced With Peer Review Prior Authorization Process

Medicaid claims from 4 geographically diverse states were examined.

Prenatal Use of ADHD Medication Linked to Neonatal Morbidity

Prenatal Use of ADHD Medication Linked to Neonatal Morbidity

There is an increased risk of neonatal morbidity associated with exposure to ADHD medication in utero.

Neurostimulation Provides Abdominal Pain Relief in Children

Neurostimulation Provides Abdominal Pain Relief in Children

Neurostimulation through percutaneous electrical nerve field stimulation was shown to durably reduce pain in children.

White Matter Volume in Infants May be Affected by General Anesthesia

White Matter Volume in Infants May be Affected by General Anesthesia

Infants under 1 year old who received general anesthesia may have less white matter in their brains.

Assessing the Global Prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

Assessing the Global Prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

The global prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder is about 7.7 per 1000.

Despite Improved Survival, Developmental Delay Still Common in Preemies

Despite Improved Survival, Developmental Delay Still Common in Preemies

Survival without neuromotor disabilities in preterm infants has increased.

Neonatal Hypoglycemia Not Linked With Neurosensory Impairment

Neonatal Hypoglycemia Not Linked With Neurosensory Impairment

The researchers observed no increased risk of neurosensory impairment among those exposed to neonatal hypoglycemia.

Exposure to Flame Retardants May Have Adverse Effect on Pediatric IQ

Exposure to Flame Retardants May Have Adverse Effect on Pediatric IQ

Reduced intelligence may be linked with developmental exposures to polybrominated diphenyl ethers.

Maternal Psychotropic, Opioid Use Boosts Risk of Neonatal Drug Withdrawal

Maternal Psychotropic, Opioid Use Boosts Risk of Neonatal Drug Withdrawal

There is an increased risk of neonatal drug withdrawal if psychotropic medications and opioids are used during pregnancy.

Animal Model Shows Reversal of Fetal Alchohol Syndrome Effects

Animal Model Shows Reversal of Fetal Alchohol Syndrome Effects

Animal research may have helped to find a treatment for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder in children.

No Elevated Risk of Intellectual Disability in Children Exposed to Antidepressants in Utero

No Elevated Risk of Intellectual Disability in Children Exposed to Antidepressants in Utero

The risk of intellectual disability among children whose mothers took antidepressants during pregnancy was not statistically significant.

Longer Cooling Doesn't Improve Outcomes in Neonatal Hypoxic Encephalopathy

Longer Cooling Doesn't Improve Outcomes in Neonatal Hypoxic Encephalopathy

Longer durations and greater depth of cooling did not reduce later mortality and disability.

FDA Clears Neonatal MRI System

FDA Clears Neonatal MRI System

Transporting neonates from the intensive care unit to MRI suites can pose challenges to care and patient safety.

Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Linked to Growing Economic Burden

Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Linked to Growing Economic Burden

With the numbers of cases of NAS rising in recent years, so is the cost associated with caring for the children.

1 in 20 Pregnant Women With Zika Infection Have Children With Birth Defects

1 in 20 Pregnant Women With Zika Infection Have Children With Birth Defects

Zika-related birth defects might occur following Zika infection during any trimester of pregnancy.

Pregabalin Use in Pregnancy: What's the Risk?

Pregabalin Use in Pregnancy: What's the Risk?

Previous research has suggested a link between early use of pregabalin in pregnancy and congenital malformations.

Buprenorphine Superior to Morphine in Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

Buprenorphine Superior to Morphine in Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

Sublingual buprenorphine was associated with shorter duration of treatment and shorter length of hospital stay.

Neurodevelopment Not Adversely Affected by Hydrocortisone Tx in Preemies

Neurodevelopment Not Adversely Affected by Hydrocortisone Tx in Preemies

No statistically significant differences between the groups in the distribution of patients without neurodevelopmental impairment were observed.

Iodide Supplementation May Not Benefit Preemies

Iodide Supplementation May Not Benefit Preemies

There was no significant difference in neurodevelopmental status at 2 years for infants with iodide vs placebo.

Exploring Links Between Zika, GBS, Microcephaly in Brazil

Exploring Links Between Zika, GBS, Microcephaly in Brazil

There was an apparent resurgence of Zika virus and GBS early in 2016, but no subsequent increase in microcephaly.

DHA Supplementation Has No Impact on IQ in Offspring

DHA Supplementation Has No Impact on IQ in Offspring

No between-group differences in measures of language, academic, or executive functioning were observed in those who took DHA during pregnancy and those who did not.

Movement Disorder After Foreign Body Ingestion

Movement Disorder After Foreign Body Ingestion

A 10-month-old girl admitted to PICU with sudden onset of movement disorder was found to have ingested a foreign body.

Risk of Zika Virus-Related Birth Defects in Pregnant Women

Risk of Zika Virus-Related Birth Defects in Pregnant Women

The CDC report only accounts for physical birth defects, as researchers note that the full scope of developmental defects has yet to be recorded.

Antiretroviral Therapy May Improve Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in HIV-Infected Infants

Antiretroviral Therapy May Improve Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in HIV-Infected Infants

Early detection and robust treatment are critical to limiting deficits in achieving developmental milestones in HIV-infected infants.

MRI Improves Diagnostic Accuracy of Fetal Brain Abnormalities

MRI Improves Diagnostic Accuracy of Fetal Brain Abnormalities

In addition to ultrasonography, MRI improved diagnostic accuracy and had an impact on prognoses in cases of fetal brain abnormalities.

MRI May Help Detect White Matter Injury in Neonates

MRI May Help Detect White Matter Injury in Neonates

The assessments revealed that damage in the frontal lobes mattered more than damage in other brain locations.

No Difference in Neurodevelopment in Children Conceived by Assisted Reproduction

No Difference in Neurodevelopment in Children Conceived by Assisted Reproduction

Researchers found no difference in neurodevelopment in children conceived by ART.

Parental Obesity Linked to Delays in Child Development

Parental Obesity Linked to Delays in Child Development

In both parents, a BMI ≥35 kg/m² suggested a likelihood that the child would fail the problem-solving domain.

Effects of Maternal Pre- and Postpartum Depression on Child's Brain Development

Effects of Maternal Pre- and Postpartum Depression on Child's Brain Development

A significant gender effect was observed in the cohort.

Blood Test May Identify Risk of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

Blood Test May Identify Risk of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

Moderate to high levels of drinking during early pregnancy were associated with significant alterations in circulating microRNAs in maternal blood.

No Neurodevelopmental Benefit for Donor Breast Milk vs Formula in Low-Weight Infants

No Neurodevelopmental Benefit for Donor Breast Milk vs Formula in Low-Weight Infants

Neurodevelopment improvement should not be considered a treatment goal of supplementing donor milk, the authors concluded.

Differences in Brain Structure in Pediatric PTSD

Differences in Brain Structure in Pediatric PTSD

The PTSD group had changes suggestive of decreased local and global network efficiency.

Updated AAP Guidelines on Safe Sleep for Prevention of SIDS

Updated AAP Guidelines on Safe Sleep for Prevention of SIDS

Children should sleep in the same room, but not in the same bed, as their parents, for at least the first 6 months after birth.

AAP: Visits to Pediatric ERs for Headache Rising

AAP: Visits to Pediatric ERs for Headache Rising

The study results suggest that headaches are a growing burden on patients and the health care system.

Antidepressant Bupropion Crosses Placental Barrier

Antidepressant Bupropion Crosses Placental Barrier

Effects of fetal exposure are yet to be determined.

Zika Infection in Late Pregnancy Can Still Affect Fetal Brain

Zika Infection in Late Pregnancy Can Still Affect Fetal Brain

In addition, a second study found that Zika infection can be spread through organ transplants.

Clinician, Parent Interaction in Neonatal Encephalopathy

Clinician, Parent Interaction in Neonatal Encephalopathy

Clear communication is key during this high-stress time.

Updated Guidelines for Sedation of Pediatric Patients

Updated Guidelines for Sedation of Pediatric Patients

Safe sedation of children requires a systematic approach.

Hyperglycemia, Infarct Size Impact Outcomes in Pediatric Stroke

Hyperglycemia, Infarct Size Impact Outcomes in Pediatric Stroke

Abnormal vital signs in these patients may be more common than previously thought.

Pregabalin Use During Pregnancy Tied to Birth Defects

Pregabalin Use During Pregnancy Tied to Birth Defects

The study was small, but suggests that clinicians and patients should exercise caution.

No Benefit for High-Dose rhEPO for Neuroprotection in Preemies

No Benefit for High-Dose rhEPO for Neuroprotection in Preemies

The regimen used in the study may be insufficient for neuroprotection.

Bevacizumab Associated With Neurodevelopmental Disabilities

Bevacizumab Associated With Neurodevelopmental Disabilities

Compared to laser treatment, infants given Avastin were more than 3 times as likely to have neurodevelopmental problems.

Working Memory Training Shows No Benefit for Academics in Children

Working Memory Training Shows No Benefit for Academics in Children

The costs of the intervention also posed a significant obstacle.

ACOG Updates Recommendations for Prenatal Genetic Screening

ACOG Updates Recommendations for Prenatal Genetic Screening

Updates were published for prenatal diagnostic testing for genetic disorders and screening for fetal aneuploidy.

Delirium Common After Pediatric Cardiac Surgery

Delirium Common After Pediatric Cardiac Surgery

Cardiac surgery is a known risk factor for delirium in adults, however its affect on pediatric patients is not known.

Sleep Disruption in Fetal Alchohol Syndrome Contributes to Cognitive Disorders

Sleep Disruption in Fetal Alchohol Syndrome Contributes to Cognitive Disorders

Slow-wave sleep fragmentation significantly correlated with neurobehavioral outcomes in a mouse model.

Vertigo, Balance Problems More Common in Girls

Vertigo, Balance Problems More Common in Girls

The large-scale national survey found differences in prevalence of vertigo and balance problems between girls and boys aged 3 to 17 years.

Pediatric Neurology Patients Use Alternative Medications for Sleep Disorders, Headache

Pediatric Neurology Patients Use Alternative Medications for Sleep Disorders, Headache

The most commonly reported neurologic disorders being treated with CAM were headache and epilepsy. Use of CAM was reported by 41.6% of respondents.

Midazolam Exposure May Impair Hippocampal Growth in Preemies

Midazolam Exposure May Impair Hippocampal Growth in Preemies

Higher exposure resulted in poorer cognitive outcomes at 18 months.

Zika Virus Poses a Threat to Pregnant Women, Unborn Children

Zika Virus Poses a Threat to Pregnant Women, Unborn Children

Pregnant women infected with virus may be at increased risk of having infants with microcephaly.

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