Chronic Lyme disease has long been a disputed diagnosis among clinicians. A new study published in JAMA Internal Medicine sheds light on the underlying conditions, including cancer and neurological diseases, that are often misdiagnosed as chronic Lyme disease.

Christina Nelson, MD, of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and colleagues studied three cases in which patients that were diagnosed with chronic Lyme disease actually had cancer. The loosely defined diagnosis is often given to patients with various nonspecific symptoms, including patients with no objective evidence of Lyme disease.

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