Inflammatory processes including autoimmune diseases which ignite endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis may promote development of cardiovascular diseases including ischaemic stroke. This study aimed to evaluate whether multiple sclerosis (MS) increases stroke risk.

After adjusting for the relevant covariates, the MS cohort had an increased risk of stroke (adjusted HR = 12.1 for 1 year; adjusted HR = 4.69 for 2–5 years) compared with the control cohort within 5 years of follow-up. Amongst participants without comorbidities, the MS cohort was still at a greater stroke risk than the control cohort [HR 4.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.85–8.55]. Moreover, in the population aged ≤40, MS was associated with a significantly increased risk of stroke (HR 12.7, 95% CI 3.44–46.7).

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