Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are complex, commonly comorbid disorders in which clinical symptoms often overlap, creating challenges in diagnosis and treatment. Advanced neuroimaging techniques are providing insights into underlying pathological and physiological changes, and biomarker studies offer the potential to differentiate these disorders at acute stages, when interventions have the greatest potential to yield effective outcomes.

Structural imaging in acute TBI is indicated for the identification of skull fractures, contusions and bleeds, but computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) typically do not demonstrate the subtle abnormalities associated with TBI including perfusion deficits, diffuse axonal injury and alterations in functional anatomical connections.

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