Deep brain stimulation is associated with symptomatic improvement for patients with Tourette syndrome.
The primary endpoint of the study is the change from baseline of the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale between placebo and active treatment groups at the end of week 12.
De novo likely gene disrupting variants were highly overrepresented in the Tourette's cases compared with unaffected parent and sibling sample controls.
The results add to the growing body of evidence in support of deep brain stimulation for refractory Tourette syndrome.
Smoking during pregnancy has been linked withlong-term neurodevelopmental abnormalities and child behavioral problems.
Levels of GABA increase during adolescence, helping to lessen the frequency and severity of tics.
With a 77% risk of heritability, tic disorders are among the most heritable neuropsychiatric disorders.
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